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Zoonotic: In addition, other coronavirus strains are widespread in animals, where they typically cause enteric disease.
Human: There are 4 different strains (229E, OC43, NL63, and HKU1), which are ubiquitous in humans and generally result in mild upper respiratory illnesses and other common cold symptoms including malaise, headache, nasal discharge, sore throat, fever, and cough [Su 2016].
Previous Species Jumps: These zoonotic coronaviruses have been known to evolve into strains that can infect humans with serious consequences including;
- Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) 2002-3
- Middle Eastern Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) 2012
- novel SARS-CoV-2 (C-19) since 2019.
- December 8th = First cases in Wuhan
- January 1st = Lockdown of Wuhan market
- January 7th = Identification SARS CoV-2
- January 10th = Complete sequence SARS CoV-2 genome
- January 13th = First cases outside China
- January 20th = Human transmission shown
- January 23rd = Lockdown of Wuhan
- January 30th = WHO declares PHEIC
- March 11th = WHO declares Pandemic
- Predominant person-to-person transmission via respiratory droplets (>5 µm diameter, max travel 6 ft/2 m) from infected person coughing/sneezing: • Contact with mucous membranes • Direct contact with infected surface followed by contact with eyes, nose or mouth
- Transmission through the airborne route (through particles smaller than droplets that remain in the air over time and distance) remains controversial
- SARS-CoV-2 can be detected in non-respiratory specimens, such as stool, blood, ocular secretions, and semen - The role in transmission is uncertain
- SARS-CoV-2 can be transmitted prior to symptoms development (incubation phase) and throughout the course of illness (symptomatic disease)
- Results of one study from China: • infectiousness started 2.3 days prior to symptom onset • peaked 0.7 days before symptom onset • and declined within seven days (mean 5.8 days)
- Risk of infection varies by the type and duration of exposure, use of preventive measures, and individual factors
- Transmission of SARS-CoV-2 from asymptomatic individuals has been well documented
- Seroconversion i.e. detection of IgG and IgM antibodies against the receptor-binding domain of SARS-CoV 2 spike protein occurred in 50% of patients by day 7, and in all patients by day 14
- Unknown if there is cross-reactivity or cross-stimulation against the four endemic human coronaviruses?
- Seroconversion does not necessarily mean immunity to reinfection
- It is uncertain that all infected patients build a protective antibodies and how long their protective effect will last
- Nonspecific symptoms resembling other viral respiratory infections
- Uncomplicated disease resolve within 2 weeks without any sequelae
- Most common symptoms in hospitalized patients, study from Wuhan [1-3]:
- • Fever (83–99%)
- • Cough (59–82%)
- • Fatigue (44–70%)
- • Anorexia (40–84%)
- • Shortness of breath (31–40%)
- • Sputum production (28–33%)
- • Myalgia (11–35%)
- • Smell and taste disorders relatively common
UK/ Kent - B 117
Recent studies suggest the UK variant of coronavirus (B117) is linked to a higher chance of hospitalisation and death than the original strain: A recent study by the University of Exeter and Bristol assessed samples from 54,906 people who had tested positive for the UK strain, against people who had tested positive for other strains. The study showed that the UK strain led to 227 deaths among 54,906 patients, compared to 141 deaths in the group of the same size with other coronavirus strains. That means the UK strain could be 64 per cent more deadly.
Early results from lab studies show that the Pfizer/BioNTech vaccine offers a good level of protection against mutations found in the UK variant (B.1.1.7). While further research is ongoing, it’s likely that the vaccine will still help protect against this strain
A study on the Oxford/AstraZeneca vaccine shows that it offers good protection against the UK variant of coronavirus (B.1.1.7). This is good news given this is the most common strain in the UK now.The study showed that this vaccine offers 75% effectiveness against the UK strain, compared to 84% against the initial strain. This is well above the 50% minimum level of protection that is recommended by the World Health Organization.